Heating and cooling in Bosnia-Herzegovina
Large district heating systems exist in Bosnia and Herzegovina in larger cities. There are also a number of small district heating grids, built in smaller cities and towns for schools, buildings or blocks of buildings. However, these systems are often old (more than 30 years) and operate mainly on fossil fuels. Many consumers have individual solutions for heating as well, using fossil fuels or wood in their own household boilers, or electricity for heating.
On the other hand, there are several other examples of district heating systems as well, such as those based on waste woody biomass that have recently been constructed and put into operation, like in Livno, Gracanica and other cities. In addition, many cities and towns have plans for the construction of such heating systems, to eliminate pollution and improve the cost-effectiveness of the heating solutions (Visoko, Zivinice, Gorazde and many others). Some current examples of good practice are listed below:
Biomass Heating - Eko-Toplane, Gracanica
Eko-Toplane (http://www.eko-toplane.ba) was put into operation in 2008. The plant is operated on biomass and is adjusted to meet the needs of local communities for the supply of heat, both in industrial plants and in private residences. The heat is produced in a biomass boiler with a capacity of 6,000 kW. As an alternative for peak load operation a fuel oil boiler is installed as well. The network of the heating system has a length of about 14.5 km with a tendency of further expansion. The heated surface area currently amounts to approximately 55,000 m2.
Biomass Heating - IEE Toplane, Gradiska
IEE Toplane Gradiska (http://www.ieegroup.net/projekti.html) was put into operation in 2014. The plant is operated on biomass and provides heat both for private residences and office spaces. The heat is produced in two biomass boilers with a total capacity of 12,000 kW. The heated surface area currently amounts to approximately 120,000 m2.
Hybrid Solar Collector/ Biomass Heating - Sports Hall “Dalibor Perkovic - Dali”, Livno
The project of the reconstruction of the Sports Hall “Dalibor Perkovic - Dali” was selected as one of ten USAID 3E projects. The letter of intent for its implementation was signed in November 2011 and the project inaugurated in November 2013. The sports hall was connected to an existing district heating network based on biomass boilers. Solar thermal panels were installed on the roof for domestic hot water heating. To reduce heat loss, new windows and doors were installed, parts of roof covering replaced, and the facade additionally thermally insulated. The installation of a Monitoring and Verification System for heat consumption should additionally contribute to improving the energy efficiency of the building.
Links: http://www.sustainable-energybih.org/27-11-2013-sports-hall-inauguration-in-livno?lang=en and http://pdf.usaid.gov/pdf_docs/PA00K5JZ.pdf
Hybrid Solar Collector/ Biomass Heating - Student Centre, Mostar
The Student Centre Mostar introduced the project of solar collector heating in 2012. Besides the solar collector, the Student Centre uses pellet stoves as well, activated at times when the solar collectors are not operated. The students are herewith supplied with 24-hour hot water and heating. The overall aim of the project was to reduce power consumption and improve the student standard. Given the number of tenants (550 students during the academic year), the project provided substantial savings. Previous costs associated to average annual energy consumption amounted up to 500 KM per person, while today they are reduced down to 185 KM per person, with the aim of further reduction. (http://scm.pogled.ba/clanak/veliki-rezultati-projekata-ustede-elektricne-energije-u-studentskom-centru-mostar/38387)
CoolHeating will overall aim at helping facilitate cost efficient solutions and positively affect the environmental impact of existing heating solutions in many cities and towns in the country. It will directly have an impact on the reduction of harmful emissions and offer opportunities for new job creation, improving the social situation in the municipalities. By comprising environmental, economic and social aspect, CoolHeating will contribute to the overall sustainability in the field. At the end, all mentioned benefits should help the national government in fulfilling requirements of increasing Renewable Energy Sources in final energy consumption and improving energy efficiency.
Target community: Municipality of Visoko
The Municipality of Visoko is situated on the crossroads of the Sarajevo-Zenica industrial region. It is a settlement with an important cultural and historical past. The convenient geographic location, favourable climate conditions, plenty of woods and current waters were the reasons why this area was inhabited ever since the ancient times. The oldest traces of human life here date back to the younger Stone Age, while on the fertile river terraces of Bosna and its tributaries many Neolithic sites were found. Having such convenient geographic and economic conditions, the Visoko basin developed into one of the main political, economic and cultural centres of the medieval Bosnia state. Visoko has a status of a royal town, while its name was first mentioned in the 1355 charter issued to the merchants of Dubrovnik by ban Tvrtko I.
Today it has a well-developed business environment and contains several business zones:
- Business zone “Ozrakovici”
- Business zone “Cekrekcije”
- Business zone “Dobrinje”
- Business zone “Topuzovo polje”.
More information can be found at: http://www.visoko.gov.ba/
The Municipality of Visoko is strongly interested in developing a district heating system and finding a more sustainable solution for heating. As a source of heat, bio-waste as well as waste heat from the Power plant Kakanj, which can operate in co-firing (coal-biomass) regimes and is situated 9 km from the town, is considered. At the moment part of the town is covered by a gas distribution system, so natural gas is used for heating to a certain degree. The rest of the Municipality uses coal or wood in individual small household boilers, or electricity for heating. Moreover, many consumers turn to individual solutions for heating (wood, coal or electricity), because of the price of natural gas.
|Total number of households:||12,953|
|Total number of dwellings:||16,628|
|Local communities:||26: 5 urban, 21 suburban|
|Total number of households in urban communities:||3,989|
|Total number of dwellings in urban communities:||4,805|
|Total number of households in suburban communities:||8,964|
|Total number of dwellings in suburban communities:||11,823|
Table 1-Basic information about the Municipality of Visoko
The total gas supply network in the Municipality of Visoko is 91,138 m, of which 69,153 m is laid in public areas.
|1.||Steel gas supply network - in buildings of collective housing||3,750 m|
|2.||Gas supply network 3,0 bars - in public areas||19,716 m|
|3.||Gas supply network 0,1 bar - in public areas||49,437 m|
|4.||Gas supply network Ø 32 – in private property||18,235 m|
Table 2 - Total lengths and types of laid gas pipeline in the area of Visoko
The proportion of the population heated by natural gas compared to other fuels (wood, electricity, pellets and other fuels) is 10:90. The largest number of inhabitants use wood for heating, which has an effect on increased deforestation. This project will directly contribute to raising awareness and educating the community about the benefits of alternative solutions. The project will as well directly have an impact on the reduction of harmful emissions, reducing air pollution and providing a healthier environment.
Cooperation with Follower communities
Follower have the opportunity to learn from the CoolHeating process of initiating new projects. Information sharing with representatives of these municipalities and dedicated joint events multiplies the CoolHeating outcome. In Bosnia-Herzegovina, the following two follower communities are involved:
• Municipality of Zivinice
• Municipality of Gorazde